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The afternoon began in hope but ended in despair for Chelsea as Manchester United retained the Barclays Premier League title.
Substitute Andriy Shevchenko's second-half strike was cancelled out by Kevin Davies' added-time leveller in a 1-1 draw against Bolton but the Blues were also left reeling from the loss of captain John Terry with shoulder injury in the first half.
The England defender was stretchered off after clashing with team-mate Petr Cech and Bolton striker Davies and could be out of next week's Champions League final against Manchester United in Moscow.
Chelsea began surprisingly slowly considering they knew a result better than United's at the end of the afternoon would see them crowned champions.
Bolton, with nothing but pride to play for, gave their hosts little room in midfield in the opening skirmishes.
But in the seventh minute, the title-chasers should have gone in front when Michael Ballack's low cross from the left found Didier Drogba at the far post.
However, instead of planting the ball into the net, the normally deadly Ivorian shot high and wide of the gaping target.
But with the game only 10 minutes old, Chelsea were dealt a major blow when Terry went down in agony clutching his arm.
The Blues captain received lengthy treatment on the pitch before he was replaced by right-back Juliano Belletti and early reports suggested he had partially dislocated his shoulder.
Chelsea continued to push for an opening goal but found Gary Megson's side in no mood to roll over.
Indeed, Bolton's Matthew Taylor underlined the threat the visitors posed at the other end when he fired a 30-yard drive just wide of Cech's left-hand upright.
Gavin McCann became the second name in Chris Foy's book when he was adjudged to have fouled Ashley Cole. The booking appeared to be harsh as TV replays showed he won the ball fairly before colliding with Cole.
The free-kick, some 30-yards from goal, provided Frank Lampard with the chance to go one better than Drogba.
But the England midfielder smashed his effort straight into the Bolton wall and another opportunity to break the deadlock was lost.
Chelsea's frustration was growing but Bolton's rearguard refused to buckle.
Joe Cole worked wonders on the right flank to get free of Taylor but the England midfielder's cross lacked the accuracy required and it fell harmlessly onto the top of Ali Al Habsi's goal.
In the 42nd minute, a cross from Lampard was turned over the bar by Bolton's McCann as the Blues increased the pressure.
Moments later, another cross from Joe Cole was collected easily by the Bolton keeper and, not for the first time this season, the home side looked to have ran of ideas.
In an effort to re-ignite their title push, Grant replaced Claude Makelele with Shevchenko at the start of the second half.
The move was clearly designed to put more pressure on the Bolton defence and in the 46th minute Florent Malouda almost broke the deadlock.
The French winger let fly with a volley from fully 25-yards which Al Habsi tipped against the crossbar.
Seconds later, Joe Cole got to the touchline and pulled the back for Malouda to try his luck again but this time his effort was deflected to safety.
But Chelsea were labouring in the heat. A 20-yard effort from Joe Cole was deflected over the crossbar in the 54th minute but, in the main, the home side were devoid of inspiration.
That fact was underlined by Ballack, who tried his luck from even greater distance three minutes later but he too found the upper tier behind Al Habsi's goal.
A fantastic run by Drogba almost brought them a goal on the hour when he left the Bolton defence trailing in his wake. He sped into the penalty area but Al Habsi pulled off a remarkable save to keep the scores level.
The deadlock was finally broken moments later when Lampard's shot was turned home by the alert substitute Shevchenko.
But El Hadji Diouf almost grabbed an equaliser in the 65th minute but Cech was equal to the task.
Joe Cole almost added a second for the Blues in the 74th minute but his effort was punched clear by Al Habsi.
Bolton almost grabbed an equaliser when a Davies header came down off the crossbar and Ashley Cole cleared the ball off the line after it hit Stelios Giannakopoulos.
But the Chelsea fans realised it was not going to be their day when news of Manchester United's second goal from Ryan Giggs spread around the stadium.
Their despair was made worse in the dying seconds when Davies shot through a crowded area to level the scores and end Chelsea's hopes for good.
Wigan 0-2 Man Utd: Giggs goal seals United's title
United were in front but needing calming despite Cristiano Ronaldo's first-half penalty when Giggs kept his nerve to coolly slot home Wayne Rooney's through ball.
A quarter of an hour earlier, Giggs' had been introduced for his 758th United appearance, equalling a milestone left by Sir Bobby Charlton that will surely be eclipsed in Moscow on May 21.
But all Giggs will care about is adding to a medal collection that continues to expand, containing all 10 championships won under Sir Alex Ferguson, part of an overall United haul of 17, one adrift of Liverpool, who Ferguson has vowed to overtake.
Few would begrudge the Red Devils their latest success, even if the free-flowing attack that has propelled them to glory by two points over Chelsea - who drew 1-1 with Bolton - was strangely muted.
Certainly anyone still daring to suggest Steve Bruce was happy enough to do his old club a favour clearly was not inside a stadium where, contrary to stated wisdom, the vast majority wanted a home win.
And how Wigan did their supporters proud as they controlled possession for long periods and enjoyed the majority of chances.
Emile Heskey was a particular thorn in the side of Rio Ferdinand and Nemanja Vidic and, with Antonio Valencia providing flashes of inspiration from the flanks, United were wobbling.
Had Chelsea known the strife their rivals were in and taken advantage in those tense early minutes, United may have toppled.
Instead, Michael Brown, Jason Koumas and Marcus Bent all failed to convert half chances and Chelsea, with longer-term problems concerning John Terry to deal with, could not seize the early initiative.
Not for the first time in recent weeks, Ronaldo had been a subdued force until his moment of destiny arrived and allowed him to equal Alan Shearer's Premier League best haul of 31.
The Portugal winger is still to produce the one stand-out performance on a day of high importance that will silence his remaining critics.
But, with the pressure starting to increase, Ronaldo was the coolest man in the stadium, sending Chris Kirkland the wrong way after Boyce had clipped Wayne Rooney.
As Sir Alex Ferguson had listed Rooney as no better than having the chance of a place on the bench 48 hours earlier, the striker's presence in United's starting line-up was a major surprise.
Like Ronaldo, Rooney toiled for long periods without having an impact but as Paul Scharner let the ball slide under his foot, Ferguson's decision to select the England man was fully justified as he was onto it in a flash.
A posse of Wigan players, Boyce among them, surrounded referee Steve Bennett to complain, although in truth they had a more plausible argument when Paul Scholes barged Wilson Palacios over by the touchline a couple of minutes later.
As the tenacious midfielder had already been booked for a foul on the same man, Bennett would have been fully justified in giving the afternoon a dramatic twist by pulling out a red card.
Instead, the official, harangued by Ferguson for dismissing Ronaldo at Portsmouth earlier in the season, opted to issue a final warning, which merely reinforced the belief that United would be champions.
United certainly began the second-half as if they believed it.
Kirkland denied a thunderous Ronaldo free-kick and goalbound efforts from Rooney and Carlos Tevez.
It formed past of a frenzied period which should have seen United awarded a penalty for Titus Bramble's ill-advised lunge on Scholes and Rooney booked as he launched a volley of abuse at Bennett for a free-kick awarded against him.
At least for the sake of United's nerves, the action was taking place around the Wigan goal but by the time Giggs was introduced, the Latics had revived and Emile Heskey planted a header on the roof of the visitors' net from Koumas' free-kick.
But United were not to be denied and 10 minutes from time, Rooney provided the killer pass for Giggs to wrap up yet another title and allow minds to wander towards the Luzhniki Stadium in 10 days' time when they intend to leave Chelsea heartbroken once more.
For a female, hair loss can feel incredibly shameful. Our hair speaks volumes about our personality and is a big factor in the way we evaluate our looks. A healthy head of hair indicates vitality, youthfulness, and health. When women begin to lose their hair, it can be a huge blow to their self esteem, but there are ways to restore it. Before seeking treatment, it's important to understand it's causes.
For some women, hair loss may be attributed to hairstyle! Wearing your hair in styles that pull tightly such as pigtails, braids, and cornrows can pull hair out at a faster rate than normal. At any given time, about 90 percent of your hair is in a growth state and 10 percent is in a relaxed state where it will eventually fall out naturally. If your hairstyle causes the growing hair to become pulled out, this can severely reduce the amount of hair on your scalp.
A hair follicle will grow for approximately 2 to 6 years. If you suspect that hair style may be at the root of your female hair-loss condition, change your hairstyle right away, but expect that it will take several years to grow back to it's natural fullness.
Hormones are perhaps the most common cause of female hair loss. Women tend to experience loss after having a baby, after surgery, during menopause, or at other times in their lives when hormones change. The onset of female hair loss may be an indicator of an over or under-active thyroid gland. If you are experiencing hair-loss at a time in your life where your hormones should otherwise be stable, you may want to have your doctor run some tests to check your thyroid.
Some types of medications such as blood thinners, vitamin A, anti-depressants, birth control pills, and medications used to treat cancer or gout can cause female hair loss. One way to determine if medication is the cause of your condition is to see if the condition improves when you stop taking the medication. However, many of these medications cannot just be stopped, and because hair growth is such a slow process, it may be quite some time before you can tell if the condition has improved. Ask your doctor if any of the medications you are taking cause female hair loss and look for alternatives.
Diseases and Infections
Female hair loss may be an indicator of an underlying disease such as lupus, diabetes, or a fungal infection of the scalp. If your hair loss symptoms don't seem to have other causes, it's a good idea to check with your doctor about possible diseases or infections that could be the core of the problem.
Unfortunately, in many cases losing hair is not something that can be reversed by changing hairstyle or stopping a medication. For many women, hair loss is a fact of life. However, this doesn't mean that women have to live with thin hair and bald patches. Today's hair restoration technology has improved dramatically in recent years and can quickly and painlessly give women back a full head of hair and their sense of self-esteem.
Men suffering from male pattern baldness easily give up on regenerating their hair mainly due to the long time taken to stop their hair from thinning. Below are 3 reasons why they should consider going natural instead of taking chemical drugs.
1. Natural hair loss cures are cheaper.
Prescription drugs for hair loss, namely Propecia (Finasteride) and Rogaine (Minoxidil), can cost you a lot of money in the long-run. Expect to spend at least $300 for the full hair restoration cycle you'll go through.
You can spend half that amount and still have your hair back in a few months time with natural alternatives.
You need to keep taking hair loss drugs or you'll lose your hair again. That's not the case with hair loss supplements. Some hair loss supplements have given permanent results to some men.
2. Natural cures have no side effects.
What's astonishing about natural hair growing supplements is that they have absolutely no side effects, unlike the chemical prescription drugs for hair loss. The main reason behind this is because these supplements are made from natural ingredients that cannot by any chance cause any side effects. It's a comfortable feeling to know that the hair loss pills you're taking aren't causing any harm to your body.
There was a clinical study once that involved a number of males taking 1mg of Propecia (Finasteride) every day, until they experienced side effects such as erectile dysfunction, and lower sex drives.
There have been documented cases of gynecomastia (the growth of breasts in men) after the use of Propecia.
Itchy scalp, acne, headaches, extremely low blood pressure, fast heart beat, chest pain and blurred vision are the reported side effects for Rogaine (Minoxidil).
Although these side effects may sound not so dangerous, they can be truly painful and harmful to your body, in the long term.
And remember, you can have none of these side effects if you use natural alternatives to stop hair loss. Be aware that some natural products contain contaminated ingredients which you don't want.
3. Natural alternatives work just as well, if not better
While many people believe hair loss drugs are the best solutions to restoring their lost hair, this is not true. The natural alternative products work can deliver the same or better results in stopping the thinning and falling of hair.
Most alternatives contain effective ingredients that work to block DHT (Dihydrotestosterone), the hormone mainly responsible for the loss of hair. This stops the hair from thinning and eventually falling; and helps your body to restore the nutrients in your hair follicle.
You can regrow your hair within a matter of months, without any unwanted side effects, and save some cash that could have been wasted. Author Resource:- And you can also find out which hair loss product is worth the "bang for the buck" by going to
Hair loss affects more than 35 million men just in the United States alone, and more than 10 million men in Europe. And let's not forget the many more increasing millions who experience symptoms of hair loss every day.
Some Major Signs of Hair Loss Include:
- Fallen hair on your pillow every morning.
- You see random strands of hair around your room or house.
- You notice clumps of hair falling out every now and then.
What Not To Do:
Most people will try to look for "home remedies for hair loss" on the internet, because we all try to solve our problems our own way. Some people do nothing and wait for the hair falling to stop. Not doing anything about hair loss will cause you to:
- Start losing hair on the front hairline and forehead and on top of the head
- And eventually only hair around the ears, the sides and back of the head will remain.
Don't feel frustrated about your hair situation, and believe that you can easily solve the problem by taking the most efficient steps. Many men give up on stopping their hair thinning and stay bald for years, and some during their lifetimes. Don't be that person who gives up easily, because you will regret it.
You'll start to see your hair again the earlier you start taking action.
What to Do:
Having said that, here are a few suggestions for solving your hair problem and regenerating lost hair:
- Try to drink at least a gallon or 8 cups of water every day.
- Eat a balanced diet, and a diet especially high in protein.
- Try to look for hair loss cures that have been proven to work. They may be products recommended by friends who successfully used them and experienced positive results, or they may be products recommended by experts.
- Watch out for scam or faulty products that claim to "stop hair loss in 3 days" because that sort of result is impossible.
You are fully aware that bodybuilding supplements boost the muscle growth in bodybuilders, and that is why supplements are so popular among bodybuilders looking to accelerate their muscular growth as fast as possible without spending thousands of dollars.
You can look at regenerating hair the same way. Most men think they'll need to pay thousands of dollars over a lifetime to have their natural looking, fully-controllable hair back, but they don't know that there are supplements out there that can help them accomplish what they want without wasting time and lots of money. Author Resource:- Be sure to watch out for products that don't live up to what they claim to do, by thinking and shopping smart. You can start here.
Manchester United Football Club is an English football club, based at the Old Trafford stadium in Trafford, Greater Manchester, and is arguably the most popular football club in the world, with over 330 million supporters worldwide (of which 139 million are regarded as 'core' supporters), almost 5% of the world's population. The club was a founding member of the Premier League in 1992, and has played in the top division of English football since 1975. Average attendances at the club have been higher than any other team in English football for all but six seasons since 1964–65.
The club is the second most successful in the history of English football and by far the most successful of recent times, having won 18 major honours since the start of Alex Ferguson's reign as manager in November 1986. They are the Premier League's reigning champions, and have won the Premier League/Football League 16 times. In 1968, they became the first English club to win the European Cup, beating S.L. Benfica 4–1, and they won a second European Cup in 1999. They also hold the record for the most FA Cup titles with 11.
Since the late 1990s, the club has been one of the richest in the world with the highest revenue of any football club, and is currently ranked as the richest and most valuable club in football, and indeed any sport, with a value of £897 million (€1,333 mil / $1,800 mil) as of May 2008. Manchester United was a founding member of the now-defunct G-14 group of Europe's leading football clubs and its replacement, the European Club Association.Sir Alex Ferguson has been manager of the club since 6 November 1986. The current club captain is Gary Neville, who succeeded Roy Keane in November 2005
Early years (1878–1945)
- Main article: History of Manchester United F.C. (1878-1945)
The club was formed as Newton Heath L&YR F.C. in 1878 as the works team of the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway depot at Newton Heath. The club's shirts were green and gold halves. They played on a small, dilapidated field on North Road, near the future site of the Manchester Piccadilly railway station for fifteen years, before moving to Bank Street in the nearby town of Clayton in 1893. The club had entered the Football League the previous year and began to sever its links with the rail depot, becoming an independent company, appointing a club secretary and dropping the "L&YR" from their name to become simply Newton Heath F.C.. Not long afterwards, in 1902, the club neared bankruptcy, with debts of over £2500. At one point, their Bank Street ground was even closed by the bailiffs.
Just before having to be shut down for good, the club received a sizeable investment from J. H. Davies, the managing director of Manchester Breweries.. Legend goes that Harry Stafford, the club captain, was showing off his prized St. Bernard dog at a club fund-raiser, when Davies approached him to buy the dog. Stafford declined, but was able to persuade Davies to invest in the club and become club chairman. It was decided at one of the early board meetings that the club required a change of name to reflect the fresh start they had been afforded. Manchester Central and Manchester Celtic were among the names suggested, before Louis Rocca, a young immigrant from Italy, said "Gentlemen, why don't we call ourselves Manchester United?" The name stuck, and Manchester United officially came into existence on 26 April 1902. Davies also decided it would be appropriate to change the club's colours, abandoning the green and gold halves of Newton Heath, and picking red and white to be the colours of Manchester United.
Ernest Mangnall was appointed as club secretary after James West had resigned as manager on 28 September 1902. Mangnall was charged with trying to get the club into the First Division, and fell just short of that target at the first attempt, finishing in 5th in Division Two. Mangnall decided that it was necessary to bring in some fresh faces to the club, and signed players such as Harry Moger in goal, Dick Duckworth at half-back and John Picken up front, but it was another new half-back by the name of Charlie Roberts who made the biggest impact. He cost the club a then-record £750 from Grimsby Town in April 1904, and helped them to a third place finish in the 1903–04 season, just a point short of the second promotion place.
It was not long, however, before the club was at last promoted to the First Division for the first time under their new name, finishing in second place in the 1905–06 Second Division. A season of consolidation followed, with the club finishing in 8th, before they finally won their first league title in 1908. Manchester City had recently been under investigation for paying some of their players a salary over the amount allowed by FA regulations. They were fined £250 and eighteen of their players were banned from playing for them ever again. United were quick to pounce on the situation, picking up Billy Meredith (the Welsh Wizard) and Sandy Turnbull, amongst others. The new boys from across town were ineligible to play until New Year's Day 1907, due to their suspension, so it was left until the 1907–08 season for them to make a proper impact on United's bid for the title. And that they did, getting the campaign off to a storming start, with a 2–1 victory over Sheffield United, beginning a run of ten consecutive victories. Despite a shaky end to the season, United managed to hang on and finished the season nine points ahead of their closest rivals, Aston Villa.
The following season began with United picking up another piece of silverware, the first ever Charity Shield, and ended with another, the club's first FA Cup title, sowing the seeds for what has become a record number of FA Cup titles. Just as they were in the club's first title-winning campaign, Turnbull and Meredith were instrumental in this season, Turnbull scoring the winner in the FA Cup Final. The club had to wait another two years before winning any more silverware, winning the First Division for the second time in the 1910–11 season. In the meantime, United moved to their new ground at Old Trafford. They played their first game there on 19 February 1910 against Liverpool, but lost 4–3 having thrown away a 3–0 lead. They then went trophyless again in the 1911–12 season, which not only proved to be the last with Mangnall in charge (he moved to Manchester City after ten years with United), but also the last time the club won the First Division for 41 years, the longest time they have gone without winning the league in their history.
For the next ten years, the club went into a state of gradual decline before being relegated back down to Division Two in 1922. They were promoted again in 1925, but struggled to get into the top half of the table, and were relegated again in 1931. In the eight years leading up to the Second World War, the club became somewhat of a yo-yo club, reaching their all-time lowest position of 20th in Division Two in 1934. They were promoted and relegated once again before being promoted in the penultimate season before the Second World War. They guaranteed their place in the top flight for after the war by finishing in 14th in the 1938–39 season.
The Busby years (1945–1969)
- Main article: History of Manchester United F.C. (1945-1969)
1945 saw the appointment of Matt Busby to the manager's post at Old Trafford. He took an uncommon approach to his job, insisting that he be allowed to pick his own team, choose which players to sign and direct the team's training sessions himself. He had already missed out on the manager's job at his former club, Liverpool F.C., because the club saw those tasks as jobs for the directors, but United decided to take a chance on Busby's innovative ideas. Busby's first signing was not a player, but a new assistant manager by the name of Jimmy Murphy. The risk the club had taken in appointing Busby paid immediate dividends, with the club finishing second in the league in 1947, 1948 and 1949 and winning the FA Cup in 1948, thanks in part to the locally-born trio of Stan Pearson, Jack Rowley and Charlie Mitten (Rowley and Pearson both scored in the 1948 Cup Final), as well as the centre-half from the North-East, Allenby Chilton.
Charlie Mitten had fled to Colombia in search of a better salary, but the remainder of United's old heads managed to win the First Division title back in 1952. Busby knew, however, that football teams required more than just experience in the side, and so he adopted a policy of bringing in players from the youth team whenever possible. At first, the young players such as Roger Byrne, Bill Foulkes, Mark Jones and Dennis Viollet, took time to bed themselves into the side, sliding to a low of 8th place in 1953, but the team won the league again in 1956 with an average age of only 22, scoring 103 goals in the process. The youth policy set in motion by Busby has now become a hallmark of the most successful periods in the club's history (the mid-1950s, mid-to-late-1960s and 1990s). Busby's original "crop" of youth players was referred to as the Busby Babes, the jewel in the crown of which was a wing-half named Duncan Edwards. The boy from Dudley in the West Midlands made his United début at the age of just 16 back in 1953. It was said that Edwards could play at any position on the field, and many who saw him play said that he was the greatest player ever. The following season, 1956–57, they won the league again and reached the FA Cup final, losing to Aston Villa. They also became the first English team to compete in the European Cup, at the behest of the FA, who had denied Chelsea the same opportunity the previous season, and reached the semi-final, only to be knocked out by Real Madrid. En route to the semi-final, United also recorded a win that still stands as their biggest win in all competitions, beating Belgian champions Anderlecht 10–0 at Maine Road.
Tragedy struck the following season, when the plane carrying the team home from a European Cup match crashed on take-off at a refuelling stop in Munich, Germany. The Munich air disaster of 6 February 1958 claimed the lives of eight players - Geoff Bent, Roger Byrne, Eddie Colman, Duncan Edwards, Mark Jones, David Pegg, Tommy Taylor and Liam "Billy" Whelan - and another fifteen passengers, including United staff members Walter Crickmer, Bert Whalley and Tom Curry. There had already been two attempted take-offs before the fatal third, which was caused by a build-up of slush at the end of the runway slowing the plane down to a speed insufficient for take-off. The plane skidded off the end of the runway, through a fence and into an unoccupied house. United goalkeeper Harry Gregg managed to maintain consciousness after the crash, and through fear of the plane exploding at any second, he grabbed both Bobby Charlton — who had made his United début less than 18 months earlier — and Dennis Viollet by their waistbands and dragged them to safety. Seven United players died at the scene, while Duncan Edwards died a fortnight later in hospital. Right-winger Johnny Berry also survived the accident, but injuries sustained in the accident brought his football career to a premature end. Matt Busby was not given much hope of survival by the Munich doctors, and was even given the Last Rites at one point, but recovered miraculously and was finally let out of hospital after having spent over two months there.
There were rumours of the club folding and withdrawing from competitions, but with Jimmy Murphy taking over as manager while Busby recovered from his injuries, the club continued playing with a makeshift side. Despite the accident, they reached the FA Cup final again, where they lost to Bolton Wanderers. At the end of the season, UEFA offered the FA the opportunity to submit both United and the eventual champions, Wolverhampton Wanderers, for the 1958–59 European Cup as a tribute to the victims, but the FA declined. United managed to push Wolves right to the wire the following season, finishing in a creditable 2nd place; not bad for a team that had lost nine first-team players to the Munich air disaster.
Busby rebuilt the team throughout the early 1960s, signing players such as Denis Law and Pat Crerand, all the while nurturing his new generation of youngsters. Perhaps the most famous of this new batch was a young man from Belfast named George Best. Best had a natural athleticism rarely seen, but his most valuable asset was his close control of a football. His quick feet allowed him to pass through almost any gap in the opposition defence, no matter how small. The team won the FA Cup in 1963, albeit finishing in 19th place in the First Division. The FA Cup triumph seemed to reinvigorate the players, who helped the club to 2nd place in 1964, and then went one better by winning the league in 1965 and 1967. United won the European Cup in 1968, beating Eusébio's SL Benfica 4–1 in the final, becoming the first English club to win the competition. This United team was notable for containing three European Footballers of the Year: Bobby Charlton, Denis Law and George Best. Matt Busby resigned as manager in 1969 and was replaced by the reserve-team coach and former United player, Wilf McGuinness.
- Main article: History of Manchester United F.C. (1969-1986)
United struggled to replace Busby, and the team struggled under Wilf McGuinness in the 1969–70 season, finishing a disappointing 8th, and following a poor start to the 1970–71 season, McGuinness was demoted back to the position of reserve team coach. Busby was coaxed back to the club, albeit only for six months. Results got better with Busby's guidance, but he finally left the club for the last time in the summer of 1971. In the meantime, United had lost a number of high-profile players such as Nobby Stiles and Pat Crerand.
Despite approaching Celtic's European Cup-winning manager, Jock Stein, for the manager's job — Stein had agreed a verbal contract to join United, but pulled out at the last minute — Frank O'Farrell was appointed as Busby's successor. However, like McGuinness, O'Farrell only lasted less than 18 months, the only difference between the two being that O'Farrell reacted to the team's poor form by bringing in some fresh talent, most specifically Martin Buchan from Aberdeen for £125,000. Tommy Docherty became manager at the end of 1972. Docherty, or "the Doc", saved United from relegation that season but United were relegated in 1974, by which time the golden trio of Best, Law and Charlton had left the club. Denis Law had moved to Manchester City in the summer of 1973, and ended up scoring the goal that many people say relegated United, and politely refused to celebrate the goal with his team mates. Players like Lou Macari, Stewart Houston and Brian Greenhoff were brought in to replace Best, Law and Charlton, but none could live up to the stature of the three that came before.
The team won promotion at the first attempt, with a young Steve Coppell making his début towards the end of that season, having joined from Tranmere Rovers, and reached the FA Cup final in 1976, but were beaten by Southampton. They reached the final again in 1977, beating Liverpool 2–1. In spite of this success and his popularity with the supporters, Docherty was sacked soon after the final when he was found to have had an affair with the physiotherapist's wife.
Dave Sexton replaced Docherty as manager in the summer of 1977, and made the team play in a more defensive formation. This style was unpopular with supporters, who were used to the attacking football preferred by Docherty and Busby. Major signings under Sexton included Joe Jordan, Gordon McQueen, Gary Bailey and Ray Wilkins, but Sexton's defensive United failed to break out of mid-table obscurity, only once finishing in the top two, and only reached the FA Cup final once, losing to Arsenal. Because of this lack of trophies, Sexton was sacked in 1981, even though he won his last seven games in charge.
He was replaced by the flamboyant Ron Atkinson, whose extrovert attitude was reflected in the clubs he managed. He immediately broke the British record transfer fee to sign Bryan Robson from his old club, West Brom. Robson would come to be touted in the future as United's best midfield player since Duncan Edwards. Atkinson's team featured new signings such as Jesper Olsen, Paul McGrath and Gordon Strachan playing alongside former youth-team players Norman Whiteside and Mark Hughes. United won the FA Cup twice in three years, in 1983 and 1985, and were overwhelming favourites to win the league in the 1985–86 season after winning their first ten league games, opening a ten-point gap over their rivals as early as October. The team's form collapsed, however, and United finished the season in fourth place. The poor form continued into the following season, and with United on the edge of the First Division's relegation zone by the beginning of November 1986, Atkinson was sacked.
Alex Ferguson era, pre-Treble (1986–1998)
- Main article: History of Manchester United F.C. (1986-1998)
Alex Ferguson arrived from Aberdeen to replace Atkinson and guided the club to an 11th place finish. The following season (1987–88), United finished second, with Brian McClair becoming the first United player since George Best to score twenty league goals in a season.
However, United struggled throughout the next two seasons, with many of Ferguson's signings not reaching the expectations of the fans. Alex Ferguson was reportedly on the verge of being sacked at the beginning of 1990 but a Mark Robins goal gave United a narrow 1–0 win in the third round of the FA Cup over Nottingham Forest. This kept the season alive, and the team went on to win the competition, beating Crystal Palace in a replay in the final.
United won the European Cup Winners' Cup in 1990–91, beating that season's Spanish champions Barcelona in the final, but the following season was a disappointment as a late season slump saw them miss out on the league to rivals Leeds United. Meanwhile in 1991, the club floated on the London Stock Exchange with a valuation of £47 million, bringing its finances into the public eye.
The arrival of Eric Cantona in November 1992 provided the crucial spark for United, and blending with the best of trusted talent in Gary Pallister, Denis Irwin and Paul Ince, as well as budding stars like Ryan Giggs, they finished the 1992–93 season as champions for the first time since 1967. They won the double (the league and the FA Cup) for the first time the following season, aided by the capture of Roy Keane, a determined midfielder from Nottingham Forest, who would go on to become the team captain. In the same year, however, the club was plunged into mourning following the death of legendary manager and club president Sir Matt Busby, who died on 20 January 1994.
In 1994–95, Cantona received an eight month suspension for jumping into the crowd and assaulting Crystal Palace supporter Matthew Simmons, who had given Cantona racial abuse as he left the field, in United's game at Selhurst Park. Drawing their last league match and losing to Everton in the FA Cup final left United as runners-up in both the league and FA Cup. Ferguson then outraged the supporters by selling key players and replacing them with players from the club's youth team, including David Beckham, Gary Neville, Phil Neville and Paul Scholes. The new players, several of whom quickly became regular internationals for England, did surprisingly well and United won the double again in 1995–96. This was the first time any English club had won the double twice, and the feat was nicknamed the "Double Double".
They won the league in 1996–97, and Eric Cantona announced his retirement from football at the age of 30. They started the following season (1997–98) well, but they finished in second place, behind the double-winning champions Arsenal.
The Treble (1998–99)
- Main article: Manchester United F.C. season 1998-99
The 1998–99 season for Manchester United was the most successful season in English club football history as they became the first and only English team to win The Treble — winning the Premiership, FA Cup and UEFA Champions League in the same season. After a very tense Premier League season, Manchester United won the title on the final day beating Tottenham Hotspur 2–1, whilst Arsenal won 1–0 against Aston Villa. Winning the Premiership was the first part of the Treble in place, the one part that manager Alex Ferguson described as the hardest. In the FA Cup Final United faced Newcastle United and won 2–0 with goals from Teddy Sheringham and Paul Scholes. In the final match of that season, the 1999 UEFA Champions League Final they defeated Bayern Munich in what is considered one of the greatest comebacks ever witnessed, losing going into injury time and scoring twice to win 2–1. Ferguson was subsequently knighted for his services to football. Rounding out that record breaking year, Manchester United also won the Intercontinental Cup after beating Palmeiras 1–0 in Tokyo.
After the Treble (1999–present)
- Main article: History of Manchester United F.C. (1999-present)
United won the league in 2000 and 2001 but the press saw these seasons as failures as they failed to regain the European Cup. In 2000, Manchester United became one of 14 founder members of the G-14 group of leading European football clubs. Ferguson adopted more defensive tactics to make United harder to beat in Europe but it was not a success and United finished the 2001–02 Premiership season in third place. They regained the league the following season (2002–03) and started the following season well, but their form dropped significantly when Rio Ferdinand received a controversial eight month suspension for missing a drugs test. They did win the 2004 FA Cup, however, knocking out Arsenal (that season's eventual champions) on their way to the final in which they beat Millwall.
The 2004–05 season was characterised by a failure to score goals, mainly due to the injury of striker Ruud van Nistelrooy and United finished the season trophyless and in third place in the league. This time, even the FA Cup eluded them as Arsenal beat United on penalties after a goalless draw after 120 minutes. Off the pitch, the main story was the possibility of the club being taken over and at the end of the season, Tampa businessman Malcolm Glazer, acquired a controlling interest in the club.
United made a poor start to the 2005–06 season, with midfielder Roy Keane leaving the club to join Celtic after publicly criticising several of his team-mates, and the club failed to qualify for the knock-out phase of the UEFA Champions League for the first time in over a decade after losing to Portuguese team Benfica. Their season was also dealt cruel blows with injuries to key players such as Gabriel Heinze, Alan Smith, Ryan Giggs and Paul Scholes. However, they were prevented from being left empty-handed in successive seasons – a disappointment not endured in the last 17 years – by winning the 2006 League Cup, beating newly-promoted neighbours Wigan Athletic in the final 4–0. United also ensured a second-place finish and automatic Champions League qualification on the final day of the season by defeating Charlton Athletic 4–0. At the end of the 2005–06 season, one of United's key strikers, Ruud van Nistelrooy, left the club to join Real Madrid, due to a row with Alex Ferguson.
The 2006–07 season saw United return to the attacking style of football that was the cornerstone of their years of success in the late 1990s, scoring almost 20 more goals in 32 matches than second placed side Chelsea. In January 2007, United signed Henrik Larsson on a two-month loan from Swedish side Helsingborgs, and the striker played an important role in advancing United to the semi-finals of the Champions' League, with hopes for a second Treble; however, upon reaching the semi-finals, United lost to A.C. Milan 3–5 on aggregate.
In commemoration of the 50th anniversary of Manchester United's entry into European competition, as well as the 50th anniversary of the Treaty of Rome, Manchester United played Marcello Lippi's European XI at Old Trafford on 13 March 2007. United won the game 4–3.
Four years after their last title, United claimed back the Premier League title on 6 May 2007, after Chelsea drew away with Arsenal, leaving the Blues seven points behind with two games to go, following United's 1–0 victory in the Manchester derby the previous day, making it their ninth Premiership title in the 15 seasons of its existence. However, an unprecedented fourth Double was not to be, as Chelsea beat United 1–0 in extra time in the first FA Cup Final to be held at the new Wembley Stadium; the first to be held in England since the old stadium was demolished seven years earlier.
The Malcolm Glazer takeover
- Main article: Malcolm Glazer takeover of Manchester United
On 12 May 2005, American businessman Malcolm Glazer acquired a controlling interest in the club through his investment vehicle Red Football Ltd. in a takeover valuing the club at approximately £800 million (approx. $1.5 billion). On 16 May, he increased his share to the 75% necessary to de-list the club from the Stock Exchange, making it private again, and announced his intention to do so within 20 days. On 8 June he appointed his sons to the Manchester United board as non-executive directors.
In July 2006, the club announced a refinancing package. The total amount will be £660 million, on which interest payments will be £62 million a year. This result of this new financing plan will be a 30% reduction of annual payments.
Club crest and colours
During its days as Newton Heath, the club's home jerseys were yellow and green; this strip was revived as an away kit in the early 1990s. In 1902, in conjunction with the name change to Manchester United, the club changed their colours to red jerseys, white shorts and black socks, which has become the standard for most Man Utd home kits ever since. The most notable exception to this is the shirt that the team wore in the 1909 FA Cup Final against Bristol City, which was white with a thin red V-neck. This design was resurrected in the 1920s before United reverted back to the all-red shirts.
Away strips are usually white jerseys with black shorts and white socks, but other colours have been used, including a blue and white striped shirt used on-and-off from 1903 to 1916, an all-black kit in 1994 and 2003 and a navy blue shirt with silver horizontal pinstripes in 2000. One of the most famous, yet short-lived, United away kits, though, was the all grey kit from 1995–96. This kit was dropped after Manchester United failed to win a single game while wearing it. At half-time during a game against Southampton, when United were already 3–0 down, they switched to their blue and white third kit, but eventually lost 3–1. According to the players, the grey kit was not visible enough which led to the poor results. Another famous Man Utd away kit included a reversible shirt that was white with black sleeves and gold trim on one side, and gold with black trim on the other side. This shirt was released as the last kit created by Umbro for the club before the change to Nike, and commemorated 100 years since the club had changed its name from Newton Heath to Manchester United.
The United third kit is traditionally all-blue in homage to the kit that the 1968 European Cup was won in. Exceptions to this rule have included a bright yellow kit worn in the early 1970s, the aforementioned blue and white striped shirt from 1996, which proved to be a firm favourite with the fans, and a white shirt with black and red horizontal pinstripes from 2004. United have also used what were originally used as training shirts as their third kit in the past, having adopted an all-black kit in the 1998–99 season and a dark blue shirt with maroon sides in 2001 for games against Southampton and PSV Eindhoven.
Currently, Manchester United's home jerseys are red with a vertical, white broken stripe with black trim on the reverse. The stripe is adorned with the letters MUFC at the top of the bottom portion, and a silhouette of the devil from the club badge at the top of the top portion. The AIG and Nike logos are also white. A patch with the words "The Red Devils" written in white, over an image of the club badge's devil, is attached to the bottom-left of the shirt. The club crest sits on a red kiss-cut shield on the left breast. The away jerseys are similar in template to the home shirt, but are black. The crest sits in a black shield, also on the left breast. There is a red-coloured piping running from the neck to the armpit and the AIG and Nike logos are white. The shirt also features the broken stripe on the reverse.
The Manchester United crest has been altered on a few occasions, but the basic form remains similar. The badge is derived from the crest of the city of Manchester. The devil on the club badge stems from the club's nickname "The Red Devils", which was adopted in the early 1960s after Matt Busby heard it in reference to the red-shirted Salford rugby league side. By the end of the 1960s, the devil had started to be included on club programmes and scarves, before it was finally incorporated into the club badge in 1970, holding its unmistakable trident. In 1998, the badge was once again redesigned, this time removing the words "Football Club". This move was met with opposition from some supporters, who viewed it as a move away from the club's footballing roots and more into the business side of the game.
It appears that, like wrinkles and belly fat, baldness is largely inherited. However, the theory that baldness is inherited from the mother's side may have been debunked.
Newer studies have concluded that male pattern baldness may come from either parent; though the mother's side may be slightly more influential. What this means to the average male is this: look to your family.
Pay particular attention to your father, grandfathers and uncles. If the grass is thick everywhere, breathe a
fairly confident sigh of relief. If there are more shiny skulls than not, you may be at risk for baldness.
The good news is that hair follicles do not die. Instead, they simply become unproductive. The trick to preventing hair loss is figuring out how to keep those hair follicles from becoming dormant. It may even be possible to re-awaken unproductive hair follicles and re-grow hair.
If family history suggests that hair loss is a likely scenario for you, there are some things that decrease your risk.
Using natural products to help prevent baldness is cheaper than trying to replace lost hair once it's already gone. Consider the power of these natural ingredients to stave off thinning hair:
* Saw Palmetto: This herb is sometimes used to treat enlargement of the prostate. This is because Saw Palmetto blocks the production of DHT (a metabolite of testosterone), a contributing factor to enlarging of the prostate. Because DHT production also causes hair loss, Saw Palmetto has been shown to be effective for preventing hair loss in some men.
* Nettle root: Those little plants with the big sting are good for something after all. Nettle root is another treatment which blocks the production of chemicals which enlarge the prostrate.
They are the same ones that can cause hair loss. Evidence suggests that nettle root may not only stave off baldness, but may actually regenerate hair growth.
* Vitamins: Your mother told you they were good for you, but you may not know they're good for your hair too. Vitamin A is an anti-oxidant which promotes healthy production of sebum in the scalp.
Vitamin E stimulates circulation. Good blood circulation in the scalp is important in keeping hair follicles productive. The 'B' vitamins contribute to melanin, which gives hair its healthy color and also stimulates blood circulation.
In addition to these ingredients, which help stop hair loss naturally, massage is also beneficial. Massage stimulates circulation. As already noted, good circulation in the scalp keeps hair follicles active. Experts suggest a few minutes of daily head massage by hand. Circulation through massage may be improved by using a few drops of lavender or bay essential oil in an almond or sesame oil base with massage.
Don't panic when your next family reunion nets a sea of bald heads. There's hope for you. Since all of these natural remedies also have other health benefits on the body besides stimulating the scalp, there's little reason not to try them.
For centuries people have been frustrated by hair loss. It is a common problem.
Hair loss affects both men and women, although it is more common in men. Hair loss generally has a negative effect on one's sense of self-image. Frequently hair loss will cause a loss in self-confidence. In order to get the best kind of treatment for hair loss, it is important to separate the myths from the truth and understand the various kinds of hair loss.
There are many causes of hair loss. The most common cause of hair loss in men is believed to be genetics and DHT. A genetic predisposition to hair loss can be inherited from either one parent or from both parents. A popular belief states that hair loss is inherited through the maternal side, but this is not correct since the trait can come from either side.
This genetic theory of what causes hair loss also involves DHT or dihydrotestosterone. Many scientists believe that DHT is a key factor in male pattern baldness. DHT is a male hormone found in the body that can shrink the hair loss follicle until it ceases to produce visible hair. Many scientists are of the opinion that your genetic predisposition, combined with DHT, are the key factors in hair loss, especially in men.
Male pattern baldness is characterized by a receding hairline and thinning in the temple, crown or vertex area of the head. So Male Pattern Baldness, or MPB, which is the most common type of hair loss in men, is believed to be primarily caused mostly by a combination of two factors, a genetic predisposition to hair loss and Dihydrotestosterone or DHT.
DHT is a byproduct of the hormone testosterone and is present in every male. Scientists have shown that if DHT can be suppressed, the hair follicles will continue to thrive and the hair will grow.
DHT deprives the hair follicles of food and oxygen. As the hair follicle weakens, the hair it produces will get thinner and thinner. Eventually, the hair follicle dies and stops producing hair altogether. When enough hair follicles die off, people begin to notice the thinning of the hair and eventually balding occurs.
While we all produce DHT, there is an inherited genetic trait that comes from either side of the family which make many of us much more susceptible to the negative effects of DHT on hair.
In 1949 an experiment was performed to help understand the causes of Male Pattern Baldness or MPB. A group of castrated prison inmates, males who were therefore not producing testosterone since they were castrated, were divided into two groups. The first group had a family history of male pattern baldness while the second group had no family history of baldness. Both groups were then injected with testosterone. The group with a family history of baldness began losing their hair within weeks. The group with no family history did not lose hair. When the injections of testosterone were halted , the progression of thinning hair stopped.
This experiment helped show that male pattern baldness was an inherited trait that is triggered with the addition of testosterone.
Since that early experiment, we have learned that it is not actually testosterone but the testosterone by-product DHT that causes the hair loss.
There are still many factors about the inheritance of baldness that are not understood and more research to be done.
Many hair loss treatments and products attempt to fight hair loss by fighting the effects of DHT on our hair.
Keep in mind that hair loss can also be caused by other factors. These factors include disease, stress, some prescription medicines, exposure to certain chemicals and other factors including improper nutrition and diet.
Information in this article is provided for informational purposes only, and is not meant to substitute for the advice provided by your own physician or other medical professional. You should NOT use the information contained herein for diagnosing, preventing or treating a health problem or disease, or prescribing any medication.
When shopping for nutritional supplements or herbal formulas you should carefully read all product packaging and information on the product label or product web site. If you have or suspect that you have a medical problem, promptly contact your health care provider. Information and statements regarding dietary supplements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration and are NOT intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease
Hair loss as it is commonly understood is losing the hairs from the head. Medically, the hair loss refers to the baldness or alopecia. This is losing the hairs from the scalp in abundant quantity. Generally, losing 50-100 hairs per day can be considered as a normal physiological procedure as all those hairs can be replaced with new growing hairs. Hair loss becomes significant when one starts losing more than that figure of hairs a day.
Hair loss could be due to many reasons, hereditary, being number one. Other causes include certain drugs, hormonal changes, pregnancy, therapies (like chemotherapy), salty water (for bathing and for drinking), makeup and dandruff. Men are more suffering from hair loss as compared to females. Baldness will be in men and not in female due to genetic reasons.
Home remedies for hair loss
1. The Indian gooseberry has been showing great results. For this, oil containing Indian gooseberry will be great to use.
2. Lettuce is another great home remedy for treating hair loss. A mixture of lettuce and spinach juice is considered to help the growth of hair if taken up to half liter a day.
3. Another is Amaranth. Its fresh leaves juice should be applied to the hair and this can help growing new hairs.
4. An application of coconut milk over the scalp will be helpful treating hair loss. You can take coconut milk and then massage it into the hair roots. It nourishes the hair and promotes the hair growth.
5. The most valuable home remedy is using seeds of lime and black pepper. Ground it together and then make it into fine paste. Use this paste as an application on the patches. This might irritate but simultaneously it stimulates the hair growth and promotes the hair follicles to grow firm hairs.
6. The leaves of the tree margosa will be useful. It should be used as a decoction. This will stop hair from falling and will stabilize them into their roots. It also kills the hair lice.
7. Another remedy for hair loss is using the paste of liquorice. It can be made by grinding the liquorice pieces in the milk with a pinch of saffron. The paste should be applied over the bald patches at night before retiring to the bed. This works wonderfully for treating alopecia condition.
8. Onions have also been found beneficial patchy baldness along with hair falling condition. The affected part must be rubbed with onions in the morning and evening. The juice of onion is stimulant to the hair follicles and hence will prevent falling too.
9. A fine paste made form pigeon pea or red gram is also considered good. Use this for longer period for maximum benefit.
10. One of the proven ones is rubbing olive oil onto the scalp and affected area. Author Resource:- You can find more information on Home Remedies for Hair Loss at Herbal Remedies. For most effective Home Remedies visit
When you suffer from hair loss, you may want a permanent solution. One of the modern technique in solving this problem is hair transplant. Celebrities also seek this treatment which have made this cosmetic surgery so well accepted by the today's society. In addition, the techniques have improved over the last decades and are suitable for women as well.
The process of hair replacement is a matter of moving some grafts from a donor site to the area that is suffering from baldness. It can help to reverse the symptoms of hair loss or poor hair density. Medical conditions such as androgenetic alopecia, scarring alopecia and other types of permanent alopecia can be corrected through this surgical procedure.
When you decide to undergo hair transplant surgery, the doctor will administer local anaesthetic. Depending on how many hair grafts you need, each session can take from two to eight hours. A ordinary treatment may require an implant of between 1,000 and 2,000 hair follicles. However, some areas may need up to 4,000 grafting.
The advanced hair restoration uses Follicular Unit Transplantation. It is internationally accepted as the gold standard in hair treatment. It uses a strip of hair that is taken from your body. The strip has approximately 1 millimeter of hair that projects from the surface. Each unit will have one to four hairs which resembles the natural growth of hair on the scalp. Then the surgeon will transplant the follicular unit transplants on the balding areas.
Before you can choose this option, you need to make sure that you have enough think and healthy hairs on the back or the sides of your scalp. Otherwise, the restoration cannot be performed.
The cost of surgery can be high. It depends on the amount of grafts required and the size of area that needs treatment. Moreover, the graft comes in various sizes and shapes. It is best that you consult the surgeon first to ascertain the expenses that you need to prepare. Now, financial companies are offering loans for cosmetic surgeries which include hair restoration. If you want to opt for this option but you can't bear the cost, you can approach the firms for loans.
If you are going weigh the cost of the surgery against hair loss products, you may save money in the long run. You will realize that it becomes affordable although it looks expensive initially.
Hair loss may affect your physiological health. Once you have the hair transplanted, you will notice an improvement in self-confidence and self-esteem.
You can't find "plugs and corn rows" anymore that were the common feature during the early stage of hair transplant. Now this new transplantation is focused on micro or mini grafting. This treatment provides a natural looking hair. Unlike the plugs, people will not notice any changes on your hair. Author Resource:- Do you want to solve your baldness or have higher density of hair? Hair transplants are becoming a choice in treating this disorder. Discover how this cosmetic surgery can restore your self-esteem at FumeWall Hair Transplants 101. It contains a number of topics on hair restoration that you need to know before you opt for this surgical option.
Good spending habits reduce stress, provide control over finances and build solid credit. So why do so many people avoid actively managing their money when it's so good for them? Because budgeting, like dieting, implies depriving ourselves of what is fun in life.
So get rid of the word "budget" — it carries too many negative connotations. Coming up with a different name, and more importantly a different attitude, will get you off to the right start mentally. Let's use the term "spending plan" instead of "budget."
A spending plan is about gathering information, finding out what your financial habits are, then making wise choices for the future.
Keep it Simple
Successful spending plans are simple and easy to manage. Many people try to establish complex, time-consuming plans that they end up abandoning in frustration.
To ensure success, keep your spending plan simple. Start out by making a list of your monthly expenses. Find an easy way to create and maintain a list. If using a computer is second nature to you, by all means create your list on it. If you're more of the paper and pencil type, use them instead. Use the method that best suits you.
My Financial Road Map
is a document we created to help you monitor your spending and develop a spending plan. You can download the map in PDF by clicking on the icon below.
Using the Financial Road Map — A Spending Plan Worksheet
Financial Road Map is divided into four sections — income, monthly basic expenses, miscellaneous expenses, and debt and credit. The first three sections have four columns for you to complete — best guess, actual, revised goal and actual. Using these columns you will estimate what you think you're earning and spending and then list the actual amounts. In the debt and credit section you'll take a look at how much you owe in credit cards and other loans. With this snapshot you'll determine the payment amounts you'd like to make to reduce your debt more quickly. From there you'll set some goals to change your spending habits and keep track of that in the revised goal column. Finally you'll track how well you're meeting your goals by tracking what you really spend in the last actual column.
List the items on your plan in order of importance to you. Basic living needs (rent, food, utilities, etc.) should be more important than entertainment or other optional items.
Plan ahead for any big expenses due in the future. Be prepared for auto insurance, car tabs, vacations or upcoming holidays. Break annual payments into monthly amounts and put that amount into a savings account every month.
For example, your car insurance costs $350 a year. Divide $350 by 12 months and plan to save $30 each month. When your insurance is due, you'll have $350 to pay your bill without having to tap into savings or credit.
Prepare for Emergencies
Plan ahead for emergencies like car trouble and medical expenses. We obviously don't know when emergencies are going to happen, but we do know that they will. Cars break, people break, and neither break cheaply! These unpleasant events will cost you money, especially if you've done little to prepare for the unexpected.
How Much Should You Save for Emergencies?
Ideally, you should have an amount equal to six months of your basic expenses put away in an emergency fund. That's tough for most people to do. But don't let the challenge of that goal stop you from getting started.
One way to begin an emergency fund is to look back over the last year and see how much you've spent on emergencies. For example, if over the last 12 months you spent $500 on various car repairs, you know that is an average of $42 per month. By putting $42 a month into a savings account, you'll start building an emergency fund.
You still may not accumulate enough to cover all emergencies, but you'll be in a better position financially to manage the expenses without maxing out your credit cards.
If you're unsure of what your expenses are, especially in areas like food and entertainment, you may want to track your spending. Carry an index card or notepad with you and write down what you spend your money on.
Monitor your spending for a month. If you buy a $2 cup of coffee, write it down. At the end of the month, you'll have a clear picture of where your money goes. Another method is to get receipts for everything you buy. Transfer this information onto a calendar at the end of each day.
Compare your spending habits to your priorities. Are you spending money on the important things in your life? You may be letting money slip through your fingers without even realizing it!
Let's say you buy your lunch each day at school or work. If the average amount you spend is $6, that means you're spending $30 a week, $120 a month or $1,440 per year on lunch. Making your own lunch could save you money and allow you to cover other expenses. Consider how you could use that $6 per day to reduce or eliminate your debt!
Tracking your spending and comparing it to your priorities will help you identify what spending habits you need to change. We created the Spending Tracker to help you monitor what you spend your money on each day. To download the Spending Tracker in PDF, clicking the link below.
It Doesn't Always Add Up
If you're spending more money than you earn, you're heading for trouble. You have three major options:
- Cut your expenses.
- Raise your income.
- A combination of both.
You may be able to survive by juggling for a while, but financial acrobatics can only last for so long.
Cut Your Expenses
Analyze your spending and look at where you can reasonably make some cuts. You may have to make sacrifices like cutting your cable service, eating out less or forgoing the purchase of an SUV. None of these are fun choices, but they may save you from financial troubles.
Raise Your Income
Raising your income is another option. Is it time to look for a higher paying full-time job? Can you pick up extra hours at your current job? Are you able to work part-time on the weekends or during the week? Examine your options.
Building a spending plan will help you plan for the future and ease the stress of money problems. Most people struggle with finances, so you aren't alone. Stick with your spending plan and you'll be one step ahead of the crowd. Get rich slow.
Liverpool Football Club is an English professional football club based in Liverpool, Merseyside. Liverpool plays in the Premier League, and is the most successful club in the history of English football, having won more trophies than any other English club. They have won a record 18 English League titles, although the last time they won the title was in 1990. Liverpool have won five European Cups, an English record. Only A.C. Milan and Real Madrid have won Europe's premier club competition more times. They have won the FA Cup and League Cup seven times. Liverpool have played at Anfield since they were founded in 1892. However, plans have been formed to start work on a new 71,000 all reserved seat stadium, in the summer of 2010 near Stanley Park.
The new stadium will be funded by Tom Hicks and George Gillett, who became the club's owners on February 6, 2007.
Liverpool have a large and diverse fanbase, who hold a string of long-standing rivalries with several other clubs; the most notable of these is with neighbours Everton, with whom they regularly contest the Merseyside derby. Liverpool have a fierce rivalry with Manchester United, due to the success of both clubs, as well as their proximity to each other.
The club's fans have been involved in two major disasters. At the Heysel Stadium disaster, 39 Juventus F.C. fans died when a wall collapsed after crowd trouble in the 1985 European Cup Final, and the Hillsborough Disaster in 1989 where 96 Liverpool fans lost their lives.
- For more details on this topic, see History of Liverpool F.C..
- For information on the current season, see Liverpool F.C. season 2007-08.
In 1891 John Houlding, the leaseholder of Anfield stadium, purchased the ground outright and proposed increasing the rent from £100 to £250 per year. Everton F.C., who had played at Anfield for seven years, refused to meet his demands and moved to Goodison Park. Liverpool F.C. were founded by Houlding on 15 March 1892 to play at the vacated Anfield. The original name was to be Everton F.C. and Athletic Grounds, Ltd., or Everton Athletic for short, but was changed to Liverpool F.C. when The Football Association refused to recognise the team as Everton.
In their first season Liverpool won the Lancashire League, and were elected to the Football League Second Division for the 1893–94 season. Liverpool ended the season unbeaten as Second Division Champions, and were promoted to the First Division. Liverpool won their first Football League championship in the 1900–01 season, and were champions again in 1905–06. Liverpool played their first FA Cup final in 1914, but lost 1–0 to Burnley. In 1921–22 and 1922–23 Liverpool won their first back-to-back League titles. This was followed by the longest spell without a trophy in their history, which ended when Liverpool won the league during the 1946–47 season. However, Liverpool struggled following this success, and were relegated to the Second Division in 1953–54.
In December 1959, Bill Shankly was appointed manager, during his first year, he released 24 players and reshaped the squad. In 1961–1962, his third season as manager, Liverpool won the Second Division Championship by eight points and were promoted to the First Division, where they have remained ever since. In 1963–1964, Liverpool lifted the League Championship for the first time in 17 years. Liverpool were League Champions again in 1965–1966, having won their first FA Cup the previous season. Liverpool won their eighth league title and defeated Borussia Mönchengladbach to win their first European trophy, the UEFA Cup, in 1972–1973. However, a year later, following another FA Cup victory, Shankly retired, his assistant, Bob Paisley, became manager.
In 1975–1976, at the end of Paisley's second season in charge, Liverpool became champions, and won the UEFA Cup. The following year, Liverpool retained their League Championship, lost the FA Cup Final, but won their first European Cup, beating Borussia Mönchengladbach 3–1. Liverpool retained the trophy in 1978, beating Club Brugge 1–0, and in 1979 they broke another domestic record by winning the league title with 68 points, and only 16 goals conceded in 42 matches. In 1979–1980, Liverpool won the league title for the fourth time in five seasons, and Paisley's third European Cup victory came in 1980–1981. In the following two seasons, Liverpool won a League Championship and League Cup "Double". During the nine seasons Paisley managed the club, Liverpool won a total of 21 trophies, including three European Cups, a UEFA Cup, six league titles and three consecutive League Cups. The only domestic trophy to elude him was the FA Cup.
The succession of managers appointed from within the club's staff is worthy of note. These managers are often referred to as "the boot room boys" after a part of Anfield where the Liverpool staff discussed strategy and allegedly stored gin. Just as Shankly had been succeeded by Paisley, so too Paisley handed the reins to his assistant, veteran coach Joe Fagan. He was 63 when he became manager in 1983–1984. In his first season in charge, Liverpool become the first English club to win three major trophies in a single season; the League title, the League Cup and the European Cup. Liverpool reached the European Cup final again in 1985. The match was against Juventus at the Heysel Stadium but before kick-off, disaster struck. Liverpool fans breached a fence separating the two groups of supporters and charged the Juventus fans. The resulting weight of people caused a retaining wall to collapse, killing 39 fans, mostly Italians. The match was played regardless and Liverpool lost 1–0 to Juventus. English clubs were consequently banned from participating in European competition for five years, with Liverpool receiving a ban for ten years, which was later reduced to six. Fourteen of their fans received convictions for involuntary manslaughter.
Kenny Dalglish became Liverpool's first player-manager in 1985. His reign saw the club win another three League Championships and two FA Cups including a league and cup Double in 1985–86. However, Liverpool's successes were overshadowed by the Hillsborough disaster. On April 15, 1989, when Liverpool were playing Nottingham Forest in an FA Cup semi-final, hundreds of Liverpool fans were crushed against perimeter fencing. 94 fans died that day; the 95th victim died in hospital from his injuries four days later and another nearly four years later having never regained consciousness, to make the total 96. After the Hillsborough tragedy there was a governmental review of stadium safety. Known as the Taylor Report, it paved the way for legislation requiring all-seater stadiums in the top-flight. The report ruled that the main reasons for the disaster were overcrowding due to a failure of police control.
Graeme Souness was installed as manager in 1991. However, apart from an FA Cup win in his first season, his reign was not successful. "Boot room" veteran Roy Evans took over in 1994. While his tenure saw some improvement in league form, in his five seasons the club never finished higher than third. Evans' only trophy was the 1995 League Cup. Gérard Houllier, the former French national coach, was drafted into the Liverpool management team for the 1998–99 season to work alongside Roy Evans, but the partnership did not work out and Evans resigned in November 1998.
Houllier's second full season in sole charge, 2000–01, was Liverpool's most successful season for many years as the team completed a combination of the FA Cup, League Cup and UEFA Cup. They finished second in 2001–02, a season in which Houllier underwent major heart surgery. Houllier would only win one more trophy in his time in charge, against a background of growing disquiet amongst Liverpool supporters, Houllier and Liverpool parted by mutual consent at the end of the 2003–04 season.
Spaniard Rafael Benítez took over and in his first season Liverpool finished fifth in the Premier League. The season had a surprising ending, however, as Liverpool won their fifth European Cup in Istanbul. In 2005–06 Liverpool picked up 82 points in the Premiership, their highest points total in the top-flight since 1988, and ended the season by winning the FA Cup in yet another dramatic final, this time against West Ham. In 2006–07, the club's search for investment came to an end when American businessmen George Gillett and Tom Hicks became the owners of Liverpool F.C. in a deal valuing the club and its outstanding debts at £218.9 million. That season, Benítez guided the team to the UEFA Champions League final once again, where they lost 2–1 to A.C. Milan.
- For more details on this topic, see List of Liverpool F.C. players.
In the period before the Second World War several players played for Liverpool for lengthy periods of time, earning themselves great admiration. Among these were Ephraim Longworth, a solid full-back who became Liverpool's first England captain in 1921, and Elisha Scott, who played in goal for Liverpool for 22 years, making him the longest serving Liverpool player ever. In front of goal, of particular note is Gordon Hodgson, who scored a record 17 hat tricks playing for the club in the 1920s and 1930s.
In the 1960s, as Bill Shankly transformed the club into a European power, among the players who established themselves as key elements of Liverpool's success were Ron Yeats, who Shankly famously described as his "colossus", and Roger Hunt, who scored 245 league goals (still a club record) as well as being part of England's World Cup winning team in 1966.
Paisley's additions to the squad were an important factor in Liverpool's success during the 1970s and 1980s. Two Scottish signings of 1977 had a particular impact: Alan Hansen, who was a part of three European Cup winning teams, and Kenny Dalglish, known to fans as 'King Kenny', would excel as a Liverpool player before becoming Liverpool's first Double-winning manager. In 1980 Paisley signed 19-year-old Ian Rush, who progressed to become the club's leading goalscorer.
More recently famous players have emerged from Liverpool's youth set up. In the early-1990s Steve McManaman and Robbie Fowler emerged to play as winger and striker for the club, while later in the decade Michael Owen, current captain Steven Gerrard and vice-captain Jamie Carragher came through the Liverpool Academy.
Colours and crest
|Liverpool's original home colours (1892–1894)|
Liverpool's traditional colours are red and white, with the home kit having been all red since the mid 1960s. However, it was not always this way. In the early days, when the club took over Anfield from Everton, they used the Toffees' colours of blue and white, wearing a kit almost identical to that worn by the Everton team of the time. By 1894 Liverpool had adopted the colour of red, and in 1901 the city's liver bird was adopted as the club badge. For the next 60 years Liverpool's kit was red shirts with white shorts, socks alternated over the years from red, to black, to white, and back to red again.
In 1964, then Liverpool manager Bill Shankly decided to send the team out in all red for the first time against Anderlecht, as Ian St. John recalled in his autobiography:
|“||He thought the colour scheme would carry psychological impact—red for danger, red for power. He came into the dressing room one day and threw a pair of red shorts to Ronnie Yeats. “Get into those shorts and let’s see how you look,” he said. “Christ, Ronnie, you look awesome, terrifying. You look 7ft tall.” “Why not go the whole hog, boss?” I suggested. “Why not wear red socks? Let’s go out all in red.” Shankly approved and an iconic kit was born.||”|
|Liverpool's third/European away kit for the 2007–08 season.|
Liverpool's away colours are traditionally either white shirts and black shorts or all yellow. However, in 1987 an all grey kit was introduced. The away kit was then grey until the centenary season of 1991–92, when it was replaced by a combination of green shirts and white shorts. After various colour combinations in the 1990s, including gold and navy, bright yellow, black and grey, and ecru, the club have settled down in the 2000s into a pattern that alternates yellow with white each year.
The current kits are designed by adidas, who also made the club's kits between 1985 and 1996. The only other branded shirts worn by the club were made by Umbro up until 1985, and Reebok for ten seasons from 1996. The current away kit is white shirts, black shorts and white socks, all with red trim. There is also a third kit of all black with red and white trim, designed primarily for Champions League away games, but is also used for any domestic games where both red and white would clash.
Liverpool were the first British professional club to wear a sponsor's logo on their shirts, agreeing a deal with Hitachi in 1979. In the years since, the club has had relatively little variation in sponsorship deals, linking up with Crown Paints and Candy before signing their current deal with Carlsberg in 1992 — a deal which is the longest-standing current agreement in English top-flight football.
The current Liverpool badge is based around the traditional liver bird, which is placed inside a shield. Above the shield is a representation of the Shankly Gates bearing the title of club's famous anthem, "You'll Never Walk Alone". The twin flames at either side are symbolic of the Hillsborough memorial, where an eternal flame burns outside Anfield, in memory of those who died in the disaster.
- For more details on this topic, see Anfield.
- For information on Liverpool's proposed new stadium, see Stanley Park Stadium.
Liverpool have only ever had one home ground, Anfield, where they have played since foundation. Anfield was built in 1884 on land adjacent to Stanley Park, and was originally inhabited by Everton. They left the ground in 1892 over a rent dispute, with the owner of Anfield; John Houlding, who decided to form a new club to play at the ground. The capacity of the stadium was 20,000, however only 100 spectators attended Liverpool's first match at Anfield.
In 1906, the banked stand at one end of the ground was formally renamed the Spion Kop, after a hill in Natal. The hill was the site of the battle of Spion Kop in the Second Boer War, where over 300 men of the Lancashire Regiment died, many of whom were from Liverpool. At its largest, the stand could hold 28,000 spectators, and was one of the largest single tier stands in the world. The stand was considerably reduced in capacity due to safety measures brought in following the Hillsborough disaster, and it was completely rebuilt as an all seater stand in 1994, with a capacity of 12,390. Though the Kop is still composed of a single tier.
The Anfield Road stand is positioned at the opposite end to the Kop, and houses the away-fans. It is the newest stand at Anfield having been rebuilt in 1998 with a capacity of 9,074. The two stands adjacent to these are the Main Stand, with a capacity of 12,227; and the Centenary Stand, which has a capacity of 11,762. The Main Stand is the oldest part of Anfield, having remained largely untouched since its redevelopment in 1973. It houses the players' changing rooms and the director's box, and the dug-outs are in front of the stand. The Centenary Stand was previously known as the Kemlyn Road Stand until it was rebuilt for the club's centenary in 1992. The redevelopment saw the houses in Kemlyn Road demolished and the address become non-existent. The current overall capacity of the stadium is 45,362 and it is rated as a four Star Stadium in the UEFA Stadia List.
On July 30, 2004, Liverpool City Council granted the club planning permission to build a new 61,000 seat stadium just 300 yards (270 m) away from Anfield at Stanley Park and on September 8, 2006 Liverpool City Council agreed to grant Liverpool F.C. a 999-year lease of land on the proposed site. Following the takeover of the club in February 2007 by George Gillett Jr and Tom Hicks there was a re-design of the proposed stadium. In November 2007 the new design received the green light from the council and construction is due to start in spring 2008. The new stadium is being built by HKS, Inc. and is expected to be completed in 2011.
Melwood, in West Derby, Liverpool, is home to Liverpool FC's training ground, it is not attached to The Academy, which is in Kirkby. Melwood is based in the West Derby area of Liverpool and has been their home since the 1950s. The ground previously belonged to St Francis Xavier, a local school.
Liverpool have a large and generally loyal fanbase, with virtually all home matches selling out; in 2006–07 Liverpool had the fourth-highest average League attendance for an English club; 43,561, which was 99.7% of available capacity, and the second-highest all-time average attendance. Liverpool fans often refer to themselves as "Kopites", which is a reference to the fans who once stood, and now sit, on the Kop at Anfield.
The song "You'll Never Walk Alone", originally from the Rodgers and Hammerstein musical Carousel and famously recorded by Liverpool musicians Gerry & The Pacemakers, is the anthem of the club, and has been sung by the Anfield crowd since the early-1960s. The song has since gained popularity among fans of other clubs around the world. Claims that "You'll Never Walk Alone" was first sung by fans at other clubs have been dismissed as very unlikely. The song's title adorns the top of the Shankly Gates, which were unveiled on 2 August 1982 in memory of former manager, Bill Shankly. The "You'll Never Walk Alone" portion of the Shankly Gates is also reproduced in the club's crest. Popular chants include "Fields of Anfield Road" (to the tune of "The Fields of Athenry"), "Poor Scouser Tommy" (first section to the tune of "Red River Valley; second section to the tune of The Sash") and "Liverbird Upon My Chest" (to the tune of "Ballad of the Green Berets").
Liverpool's longest standing rivalry is with fellow Merseyside team Everton, against whom they contest the Merseyside derby. This stems from Liverpool's formation after a dispute with Everton officials and the owners of Anfield, which was the ground Everton were using at the time. Religious differences have been cited as a division, though both teams stem from a Methodist origin, undermining the notion of a Catholic–Protestant split. The Merseyside derby is usually a sell out fixture and tends to be a scrappy affair; it has had more red cards than any other fixture in Premiership history.
Liverpool also have a significant rivalry with north-west neighbours Manchester United. This is mostly due to the success enjoyed by the two clubs and the geographical proximity of the two cities. Liverpool and Manchester United are the two most successful teams in England, both with large international support. Liverpool dominated English football from the mid 1970s through the 1980s with 11 titles in 18 years, and they also won four European Cups in the period, while Manchester United have dominated the Premier League era from 1992 with nine titles in 15 years to 2007, with one UEFA Champions League.
Liverpool in popular culture
Liverpool featured in the first edition of the BBC's Match of the Day, which screened highlights of their match against Arsenal at Anfield on 22 August 1964. Liverpool were also the subject of television's first colour football transmission, which showed their match against West Ham United live. Liverpool fans singing "You'll Never Walk Alone" were featured in the Pink Floyd song, "Fearless". A documentary on the Hillsborough disaster directed by Jimmy McGovern, was screened in 1996. It Featured Christopher Eccleston as Trevor Hicks, whose story formed the focus of the script. Hicks lost two teenage daughters in the disaster and went on to campaign for safer stadia, as well as helping form the Hillsborough Families Support Group.
Statistics and records
- For more details on this topic, see List of Liverpool F.C. statistics and records.
Liverpool's first competitive game was in the Lancashire League against Higher Walton. The match was won 8–0, with a mostly Scottish team. Ian Callaghan holds Liverpool's appearance record, having made 857 over the course of 19 seasons from 1958–78. He also holds the record for League appearances with 640. Of the current squad Jamie Carragher has the most appearances with 500 as of January 15, 2008.
Liverpool's all time leading scorer is Ian Rush, who scored 346 goals in two spells at the club from 1980–1987 and 1988–1996. Rush holds the record for the most goals in a season with 47 in 1983–84. However, during his career, Rush could not surpass the league goal-scoring record of Roger Hunt, which has stood at 245 since 1970. In the 1961–62 season, Hunt scored 41 goals, setting the club record for league goals in a single season. Gordon Hodgson is the club's third highest scorer with 240 goals, and holds the club record of 17 hat tricks. The most goals scored by a player in a single match is five, which has been achieved by John Miller, Andy McGuigan, John Evans, Ian Rush and Robbie Fowler. Fowler also holds the club and Premiership record for the fastest hat trick from when he scored three past Arsenal in four minutes, 32 seconds in the second game of the 1994–95 season.
Steven Gerrard is Liverpool's all-time leading goalscorer in the European Cup with 21 goals. Liverpool's biggest ever victory was 11–0 against Strømsgodset I.F. in 1974, in which nine of the ten outfield players scored — a Liverpool record. Rotherham Town were the victims of Liverpool's biggest league win, losing 10–1 in 1896. This margin of victory was matched in the modern era, as Crystal Palace were defeated 9–0 at Anfield in 1989. Liverpool's heaviest defeats were against Huddersfield Town in 1935 which finished 0–8, and Birmingham City in 1954 which ended 1–9. Liverpool's 8–0 victory on November 6, 2007 against Beşiktaş JK in the Champions League is the record win in the competition.
Current squad and staff
- As of 29 January 2008.
First team players
Players out on loan
For recent transfers, see Liverpool F.C. season 2007-08.
Reserves and Academy players
- As of 11 January 2008.
|Alex Miller||First Team Coach|
|Xavi Valero||Goalkeeping Coach|
|Gary Ablett||Reserve Team Manager|
|Angel Vales||Reserve Team Coach / Head of Technical Analysis|
|Eduardo Macia||Chief Scout|
|Mark Waller||Club Doctor|
- For more details on this topic, see List of Liverpool F.C. managers.
As of 21 December 2007. Only competitive matches are counted.
|W. E. Barclay and John McKenna||February 1892||August 1896||131||80||20||31||344||158|
|Tom Watson||August 1897||May 1915||742||329||141||272||1226||1056|
|David Ashworth||December 1919||February 1923||138||70||40||28||220||118|
|Matt McQueen||February 1923||February 1928||229||93||60||76||354||307|
|George Patterson||March 1928||August 1936||366||137||85||144||665||700|
|George Kay||August 1936||January 1951||357||142||93||122||551||511|
|Don Welsh||March 1951||May 1956||232||81||58||93||387||423|
|Phil Taylor||May 1956||November 1959||150||76||32||42||294||211|
|Bill Shankly||December 1959||July 1974||783||407||198||178||1307||766|
|Bob Paisley||July 1974||July 1983||535||307||132||96||955||406|
|Joe Fagan||July 1983||May 1985||131||70||37||24||225||97|
|Kenny Dalglish||May 1985||February 1991||307||187||78||42||617||259|
|Ronnie Moran||February 1991||April 1991||10||4||1||5||20||16|
|Graeme Souness||April 1991||January 1994||157||65||47||45||248||186|
|Roy Evans||January 1994||July 1998||226||116||57||53||375||216|
|Roy Evans and Gérard Houllier||July 1998||November 1998||18||7||6||5||33||20|
|Gérard Houllier||November 1998||May 2004||307||158||75||74||516||298|
|Rafael Benítez||June 2004||Present||207||116||40||51||332||172|
- For more details on this topic, see Liverpool F.C. seasons.
Liverpool's tally of 18 Football League championships is a record for English clubs, their nearest challenger being Manchester United with 16., although Liverpool are yet to win the title in the 16 year long Premier League era. Liverpool's seven League Cup victories is a record, being two clear of Aston Villa. Liverpool achieved the League and FA Cup "Double" in 1986 and have won three trophies in one season twice - the first of League, League Cup and European Cup was achieved in 1984, and in 2001 comprising the FA Cup, League Cup and UEFA Cup..
Liverpool's total of five European Cups is an English record and the third highest total overall, after Real Madrid and AC Milan. The fifth victory in 2005 entitled Liverpool to receive the UEFA badge of honour, thus allowing them to keep the trophy permanently.
- Winners (18): 1900–01, 1905–06, 1921–22, 1922–23, 1946–47, 1963–64, 1965–66, 1972–73, 1975–76, 1976–77, 1978–79, 1979–80, 1981–82, 1982–83, 1983–84, 1985–86, 1987–88, 1989–90
- Runners-up (11): 1898–89, 1909–10, 1968–69, 1973–74, 1974–75, 1977–78, 1984–85, 1986–87, 1988–89, 1990–91, 2001–02
- Division Two (Level 2)
- Winners (3): 1893–94, 1895–96, 1904–05, 1961–62
- Lancashire League
- Winners (1): 1892–93
- FA Cup
- Winners (7): 1965, 1974, 1986, 1989, 1992, 2001, 2006
- Runners-up (6): 1914, 1950, 1971, 1977, 1988, 1996
- League Cup
- Winners (7): 1981, 1982, 1983, 1984, 1995, 2001, 2003
- Runners-up (3): 1978, 1987, 2005
- Community Shield
- Winners (15): 1964 (shared), 1965 (shared), 1966, 1974, 1976, 1977 (shared), 1979, 1980, 1982, 1986 (shared), 1988, 1989, 1990 (shared), 2001, 2006
- Runners-up (6): 1922, 1971, 1983, 1984, 1992, 2002
- Screen Sport Super Cup
- Winners (1): 1986
- European Cup and UEFA Champions League
- Winners (5): 1977, 1978, 1981, 1984, 2005
- Runners-up (2): 1985, 2007
- UEFA Cup
- Winners (3): 1973, 1976, 2001
- UEFA Super Cup
- Winners (3): 1977, 2001, 2005
- Runners-up (2): 1978, 1984
- UEFA Cup Winners' Cup
- Runners-up (1): 1966
- Intercontinental Cup and Club World Cup
- Runners-up (3): 1981, 1984, 2005